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新生儿护理常识

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发表于 2013-7-16 18:30:27 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
有些刚出生的小宝宝偶尔会出现一些异常情况,把年轻的妈妈吓得不知所措。其实,大多数情况下宝宝的异常都不是什么毛病,妈妈大可不必惊慌:
      呼吸不规律:新生儿呼吸不但浅,而且也无规律,有快慢不均的现象。这是因为新生儿肋间肌软弱,鼻咽部和气管狭小,肺泡适应性差,所以以腹式呼吸为主。腹式呼吸本身就弱且浅,每次呼气与吸气量均小,呼吸自然就会出现快慢不均的现象,每分钟可达40-50次,这属正常的生理现象。
      警示:若有面色发紫及其他症状出现,应及时就诊。
      体重减轻:新生儿出生后一周往往有体重减轻的现象。这是因为婴儿出生后不能立即进食或进食量少,再加上每天排出大小便,呼吸和皮肤排出的肉眼看不到的水分等,使体内一时失去平衡,造成暂时性体重减轻。一般情况下10天内即可恢复。
      警示:如10天后仍未恢复,应寻找原因。
      打喷嚏:新生儿鼻腔内毛细血管丰富、鼻腔狭小、鼻道短,外界微小物质,如棉绒、绒毛、尘埃等均可刺激鼻粘膜引起打喷嚏;溢奶返流至鼻腔中,也可引起喷嚏;洗澡后小儿受冷气刺激,也可引起打喷嚏,妈妈不必担心,莫动辄给其乱服感冒药。
      女婴阴道出血:女婴出生后一周左右阴道有少许血性分泌物或粘液属正常现象。原因是胎儿在体内受母体雌激素水平作用,出生后雌激素水平迅速下降,使子宫及阴道上皮组织脱落,医学上称为“假月经”,属正常生理现象。
      警示:如持续且量大需入医院就诊。
      乳房增大:母亲怀孕后,体内孕激素含量逐渐增多,直到分娩前达到高峰。这些激素能促进母体乳汁分泌,同时也会通过胎盘影响到胎儿。有的新生儿会因此出现乳房增大。出生后来自母体的激素消失,增大的乳房也就渐渐消失了。
      警示:家长切勿紧张,勿挤乳头,以免发生感染。或可入医院就诊。
      皮肤黄染:新生儿出生后2-3天皮肤变黄,但过7-10天后,黄色逐渐减退而消失。这种现象称为生理性黄疸。
      警示:若在生后24小时内出现皮肤发黄,且很快加重,或两周后黄疸仍不消退,应考虑是病理性黄疸,需到医院治疗。
      马牙:新生儿齿龈边缘或在上腭中线附近常会有乳白色的颗粒,乍看起来像长出牙,俗称“板牙”或“马牙”,这是上皮细胞堆积形成的。一般经两周左右可自行吸收或脱落,不必治疗。更不能用针去挑或用布擦,以免损伤粘膜,引起感染。
      惊跳:新生儿神经系统发育不完善,受到刺激引起的兴奋容易“泛化”,凡是大声、强光、震动以及改变体位都会使小儿产生惊跳。新生儿惊跳时,只要妈妈用手轻轻按住宝宝身体任一部位,都可以使其安静下来。
      警示:惊跳应与惊厥区别开来。惊跳表现为双手向上张开,又很快收回,有时还伴有啼哭。新生儿惊厥则表现为两眼凝视、震颤,或不断眨眼,口部反复地作咀嚼、吸吮动作,呼吸不规则,皮肤青紫,面部肌肉抽动。出现这种症状时,应及时看医生。

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